APCOA PARKING Deutschland GmbH, Europe’s largest parking lot operator, has celebrated the launch of services at the newly inaugurated Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER).
- Car park with spaces for 17,000 vehicles
- Ticketless drop-off zone with innovative number plate recognition system
- State-of-the-art taxi rank with dedicated taxi driver app
- Management of more than 2,500 luggage trolleys at 113 stations
Stuttgart/Berlin, 05 November 2020 - APCOA PARKING Deutschland GmbH, Europe's largest parking lot operator, has celebrated the launch of services at the newly inaugurated Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER). APCOA's on-site teams are managing the airport's multi-storey car parks, outdoor parking areas and parking control centre. APCOA is also responsible for taxi and baggage trolley management.
The new BER airport has 17,000 car parking spaces for visitors, travellers, airport employees and car-sharing providers at Terminal 1, Terminal 2 and Terminal 5 (formerly Berlin Schönefeld Airport). This is equivalent to 25 football pitches spread over 35 parking levels. From the state-of-the-art parking control centre, APCOA employees are able to monitor all of the airport's parking facilities and pay machines, control well over 100 barriers and oversee all aspects of the car parks' innovative parking technology. They are also available to provide immediate customer service on site.
"The opening of BER airport marks yet another major milestone in our company's fifty-year history. We are delighted to have been appointed to manage parking facilities and provide a wide range of additional services, not only here, but also at more than 60 airports across Europe. We have already established a very close relationship with the airport's operating company, Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg GmbH (FBB), which is certainly important, especially in these particularly challenging times. Now we are expecting the first passengers and for the use of our facilities to accelerate rapidly once the Covid-19 pandemic is back under control", says Philippe Op de Beeck, CEO of APCOA PARKING Group.
10 free minutes for drop-off and pick-up With its automatic number plate recognition system (ANPR), the airport has the most technologically advanced terminal access road in Germany. A particular benefit of ANPR is that it enables ticketless parking in the 650-metre drop-off/pick-up zones. Cameras automatically recognise vehicles' number plates and open the barrier for them. The system gives drivers ten free minutes to drop off passengers. If they choose to stay longer, they can pay quickly and conveniently by entering their number plate at the payment machine.
Alternatively, customers in the P1, P3, P7 and P8 car parks can also use the APCOA FLOW parking app, which enhances the entire parking experience on a number of levels. APCOA FLOW recognises users via their cars' personalised RFID chips and automatically manages the entire parking process. There is no need to take a ticket when entering the parking lot and no need to queue at a ticket machine either; payments are processed via the method specified by the user in the app. APCOA FLOW allows users to enjoy contactless and cashless parking.
"We are convinced that we will overcome the challenges facing the travel and parking industries together. Against this background, we couldn't be more delighted that Berlin Brandenburg Airport has now opened", explains Hansjörg Votteler, Managing Director of APCOA PARKING Germany. "With our comprehensive portfolio of services, APCOA offers everything to make travelling as convenient and easy as possible. This, combined with its employees' extensive airport parking management experience, are what make APCOA such a strong partner for FBB".
Guests who want to park their vehicles in the airport's long-stay car parks can also book their parking spaces in advance online at https://ber.berlin-airport.de/. The online booking service is managed by APCOA and offers favourable conditions and regular discounts. The system also allows drivers to amend their bookings at no extra cost. APCOA offers day parking spaces from as little as EUR 19.00. Holidaymakers can park at BER for as little as EUR 29.00 per week. This offer is valid for bookings made by 30 November 2020 and for parking until the end of March 2021.
Intelligent taxi management
APCOA is also responsible for managing taxi traffic at BER Airport so that guests can arrive and depart with the maximum comfort and convenience. BER has taxi ranks at Terminals 1 and 5, which together provide space for 750 taxis and three loading zones. "Over the years, FBB has entrusted APCOA to manage taxi traffic at all Berlin airports. With our fully automated system - in conjunction with the new TMSpro app for taxi drivers - we are now also ensuring the seamless transport of guests at BER", says Votteler.
The system optimises taxi traffic and saves time, creating numerous benefits for both travellers and taxi drivers. Transponders installed in individual taxis guarantee that taxis arrive and leave the taxi ranks as and when they are needed, thereby reducing overall traffic volumes at the airport. Taxi drivers are able to park their cars in waiting zones - the system registers the time of arrival via their transponder and ID number. The taxis are then summoned to the rank when they are required. The system is also set up to efficiently manage special requests, such as for large taxis or taxis with child seats. Via displays in waiting lounges, the TMS website and the new TMSpro app (available for iOS and Android), taxi drivers can keep an eye on all ranks, including details of forecast waiting times.
Baggage trolley management takes the strain out of travelling
Managing baggage trolley traffic and ensuring that travellers have the trolleys they need, where they need them depends on having the right infrastructure in place. "For us, baggage trolley management is a flagship service and direct reflection of customer satisfaction and service quality at the airport. Our highly efficient service is based on strategic planning and effective organisation", says Votteler. APCOA employees manage up to 2,600 baggage trolleys at 113 stations, including 3 platforms, depending on flight schedules. The extensive baggage trolley management experience APCOA has amassed at Berlin Schönefeld (SXF) and Berlin Tegel (TXL) airports will allow the company to coordinate the 650 trolleys in the arrival zone alone.
"Our contract at BER gives us another great opportunity to further cement APCOA's status as a leader in serving Europe's major airports. I am extremely proud of my teams and I would like to thank everyone who has been involved in the project for their hard work and enormous commitment over the weeks and months leading up to the airport's official opening", enthuses Hansjörg Votteler, Managing Director of APCOA PARKING Germany, as he reflects on the opening of the new Berlin-Brandenburg Willy Brandt Airport.
Photos for press publications must credit the author BER and the respective photographers: Günter Wicker and Ekaterina Zershchikova
Video on the ANPR system at the drop-off/pick-up zone: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ywdm8VrP8t8 Link to TMSpro in the app stores
Your contact for additional information, expert interviews and any other enquiries
Britta Braig | Director Marketing
APCOA PARKING Deutschland GmbH
Luftfrachtzentrum 605/5 in 70629 Stuttgart
About APCOA PARKING Germany
APCOA PARKING Deutschland GmbH is based at Stuttgart Airport and manages more than 230,000 parking spaces at around 300 sites in more than 80 cities across Germany, including parking spaces in city centres and at airports, trade fairs, hotels and hospitals. In 2019, APCOA was recognised as the fairest company in the parking facility management industry by the leading magazine Focus Money.
APCOA's free parking app, APCOA FLOW, enhances the parking experience for consumers and business customers in over 200 selected car parks. The app's benefits include ticketless access and automatic billing, making queueing at pay machines a thing of the past. The app's users can also specify their preferred payment method and keep track of all of their parking transactions either in the app or via email. No more stretching for a ticket at the barrier, no more looking for change at the payment machine. For all fans of contactless parking, the app is available now in the Apple App Store and Google Play.
Here's how it works:
- Download the free app for iOS or Android from the Apple App Store or Google Play
- Open the app, register and order your free chip card
- Find the most convenient car park in the app and enjoy an entirely new parking experience
Simply contact us and we'll send you a free promotional code to test the app.
Apcoa, Bosch, and Mercedes-Benz are working to provide the world’s first commercial automated valet parking (AVP) service.
- In the future, a command from a smartphone will tell cars where to park in Stuttgart Airport's P6 parking garage.
- The new Mercedes-Benz S-Class is equipped with the technology to enable driverless, fully automated parking (SAE Level 41).
- For AVP, Bosch is using camera-based infrastructure for the first time to detect lanes and obstacles.
- The parking garage operator Apcoa is testing barrier and payment functions as the basis for automated valet parking, enabled by its APCOA FLOW digital mobility platform.
12 October 2020
APCOA PARKING (APCOA), Europe's leading parking space operator, has launched APCOA URBAN HUBS to create an integrated ecosystem for the innovative and sustainable use of parking spaces. While APCOA's strategic partners benefit from being able to access the physical infrastructure and digital services they need to further develop their business models, APCOA PARKING's customers benefit from an expanded range of innovative services and products. With APCOA serving as the central interface between individual, intermodal mobility and Smart City concepts, in combination with APCOA's strong network of strategic partners, real estate owners also benefit by sustainably enhancing the value of their assets.
Automated parking to drive down the airport stress: Bosch, Mercedes-Benz, and the parking garage operator Apcoa want to introduce driverless and fully automated parking at Stuttgart airport in the future. To this end, the automated valet parking (AVP) system co-developed by Bosch and Mercedes-Benz is to be made ready for commercial operation. The new Mercedes-Benz S-Class is already geared up to accommodate it as the world's first production vehicle to feature the technology required for future infrastructure-based AVP. As an option, customers can buy the appropriate pre-installation for what the company calls the INTELLIGENT PARK PILOT, which makes the S-Class capable of receiving a smartphone command to drive itself to a reserved parking space. "With the new S-Class, it's not just driving that's a luxury, but parking as well," says Dr. Michael Hafner, head of automated driving at Mercedes-Benz AG. The P6 parking garage at Stuttgart airport will serve as the pilot for the planned commercial automated parking service. Here, the companies will test how the vehicle technology onboard the S-Class interacts with the intelligent Bosch infrastructure and APCOA FLOW, the digital platform provided by the parking garage operator Apcoa.
This platform makes the whole parking process ticketless and cashless. "Apcoa, Bosch, Mercedes-Benz, and Stuttgart airport want to work together to make parking fully automatic," says Christoph Hartung, member of the executive management of Connected Mobility Solutions at Bosch. In the airport parking garage, preparations are currently underway to begin piloting the planned automated valet parking service. The aim of this trial with new S-Class vehicles at Stuttgart airport is to ensure that interactions between the vehicle, infrastructure technology, and parking garage operator run smoothly and are optimized for the customer.
World's first Level 4 park function in a production vehicle In July 2019, Bosch and Mercedes-Benz received the world's first special permit to operate AVP for selected E-Class vehicles without a safety driver in real-life, mixed parking garage traffic at the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart. Equipped with the appropriate pre-installation for the INTELLIGENT PARK PILOT, the new Mercedes-Benz S-Class is now the first production vehicle to feature AVP technology, which enables it to park without a driver. However, this is conditional on the future availability of parking garages with the appropriate infrastructure, as well as on national legislators giving AVP the green light. This makes the Mercedes-Benz S-Class the world's first vehicle to feature a pre-installation for an SAE Level 4 automated driving function, the second-highest level of automation. "With automated valet parking, Mercedes-Benz is demonstrating that driverless parking will soon be possible," Hafner says.
To facilitate this new one-touch parking function, a spacious drop-off and pick-up area will be set up directly behind the entrance to the P6 parking garage, giving AVP users a convenient place to leave their vehicles. As they comfortably make their way to the terminal and check in, their S-Class will park itself in the basement, guided by information from the infrastructure technology. In other words, users no longer need to worry about maneuvering or having to squeeze out of their cars when the space they have finally found proves to be too narrow. "Automated valet parking really enhances our passengers' comfort and convenience and saves them time, especially when they're in a hurry and just want to drop their car off quickly at the airport", says Walter Schoefer, management spokesman for Flughafen Stuttgart GmbH. For the test phase that is about to start, P6 will initially have two spaces available for self-parking vehicles. More spaces will be added when driverless parking becomes standard as planned in the future and as demand increases.
Intelligent infrastructure and digital platforms
The pilot parking garage at Stuttgart airport will be a premiere for new Bosch video cameras that can identify vacant parking spaces, monitor the driving aisle and its surroundings, and detect obstacles or people in the aisle. Until now, lidar sensors have been used for this purpose. A dedicated control center in the parking garage then calculates the route the vehicles need to take to reach an available space. "Our intelligent parking garage infrastructure forms the basis for the future of driverless parking," Hartung says. Thanks to the information that the cameras provide, it is also possible for cars to drive themselves around the parking garage - even on narrow ramps, enabling them to move between different stories. The in-vehicle technology autonomously converts the information from the infrastructure into driving maneuvers. If the cameras detect an unexpected obstacle, for example, the vehicle safely performs an emergency stop.
APCOA FLOW, the parking garage operator Apcoa's digital platform, will also play a key role in driverless parking at Stuttgart airport. Drivers are already using the platform to help lighten the burden of parking. This ranges from making firm reservations for a parking space, to contactless entry into the parking garage, and to fully automated payment, invoicing, and contactless exit. The system recognizes the customer's vehicle and the barriers open automatically, making a ticket and trip to the ticket machine redundant. "We want to be the first parking garage operator to fully support and enable automated parking services based on AVP technology in one of our parking garages," says Frank van der Sant, chief commercial officer at Apcoa Parking Holdings GmbH.
More vehicles, more parking garages
A vehicle drop-off and collection service saves time and avoids long walks to the car: once parking garages are equipped with the appropriate infrastructure and national laws permit AVP, customers will be able to enjoy driverless parking services. Bosch and Mercedes-Benz are paving the way for this with the world's first infrastructure-based solution for SAE Level 4 automated valet parking in real-life, mixed parking garage traffic. Uniform standards and interfaces ensure smooth communication between the vehicles and infrastructure technology. In the future, Bosch's aim is to equip more and more parking garages with AVP infrastructure technology.
As Europe's largest parking garage operator, Apcoa also has a strategic interest in offering innovative premium services like AVP in more of its parking garages. "Looking ahead, we want to open up AVP to more customers at selected Apcoa locations," van der Sant says. The company manages approximately 1.5 million individual parking spaces at over 9,500 locations in 13 European countries. By increasing the availability of driverless and fully automated parking services, the same amount of space could accommodate up to 20 percent more vehicles. In addition, driverless parking is especially suitable for narrow, remote, and therefore unattractive parking areas that people would otherwise avoid.
1 SAE-Level 4: The car can autonomously handle all traffic situations under certain conditions (e.g. on selected roads, not in all types of weather). No driver is required.
About APCOA PARKING Group
APCOA PARKING Group is Europe's leading parking operator with more than 45 years of industry expertise. With its 5,000 employees, the company manages approximately 1.4 million individual parking spaces at over 10,000 locations in 13 European countries. These include parking spaces at 1,800 city and shopping centre locations, 400 hotels, 150 hospitals and 58 European airports. With its consistent "asset light" business model, APCOA is the trusted partner who maximizes value for private and public real estate owners
Via its open digital platform APCOA FLOW, the company connects on-street and off-street car parks with clients, partners, customers and their vehicles. Based on this technology, APCOA is transforming its car parks into mobility hubs, offering innovative services that enable a more convenient mobility experience. The environment also benefits: with its digital services and intelligent Traffic Management System, the company actively contributes to the reduction of emissions in cities by decreasing the volume of traffic searching for parking. By connecting parking and mobility, APCOA is positioned to become an integral part of the Smart City.
Additional information: World first: Bosch and Daimler obtain approval for driverless parking without human oversight Bosch and Daimler demonstrate driverless parking in real-life conditions
APCOA PARKING, Europe’s leading parking operator, and HERE Technologies, a leading location data and technology platform, today announced plans for a strategic technology and commercial partnership.
Strategic collaboration around digital parking services and high-definition (HD) 3D indoor maps for the automotive industry and smart cities
May 25, 2020
Amsterdam/Stuttgart - APCOA PARKING, Europe's leading parking operator, and HERE Technologies, a leading location data and technology platform, today announced plans for a strategic technology and commercial partnership.
Both companies intend to develop and commercialize digital parking services and HD indoor maps of parking facilities in Europe. To this end, they plan to combine their complementary capabilities in parking and mapping to jointly pursue business opportunities in the automotive and urban mobility sectors.
APCOA FLOW serves as the associated brand and underlying open digital platform for all digital parking and mobility service offerings of APCOA. In the planned collaboration, HERE takes the role as the technical integrator, supporting a true end-to-end, location-enriched, user experience throughout a driver's journey. Key touchpoints for users will be in-car infotainment systems, apps and websites.
Initially, the two partners plan to enhance APCOA's almost 10,000 sites in 13 European countries with location data and services on the HERE platform. Based on this, they aim to build a joint parking solution for car makers, mobility service providers and smart cities. Further target segments will include fleet operators, smart logistics and TIER 1 suppliers. The intention is to make this solution available and marketed through the HERE Marketplace.
In addition, both companies are also looking to kickstart a joint initiative for the creation of HD 3D indoor maps of parking garages in Europe. This would enable the development of new services like autonomous valet parking and pre-booking of parking spaces for seamless end-to-end routing as well as augmented reality-related experiences for end users.
"We are very excited to join forces with HERE to enhance the mobility experience of drivers across Europe with seamless digital parking services", states Frank van der Sant, Chief Commercial Officer at APCOA. "And the development of HD 3D maps of our car parks for indoor navigation will be a real first to market innovation made available on a larger scale."
"With our complementary strengths in parking and location technology, a partnership between APCOA and HERE is really a natural fit", said Jorgen Behrens, Chief Product Officer at HERE Technologies. "We are looking forward to jointly building a broad portfolio of indoor parking maps for wayfinding and autonomous parking and also further expand the HERE Marketplace offering with this new content."
About APCOA PARKING Group
APCOA PARKING Group is Europe's leading parking operator with 50 years of industry expertise. With its 5,500 employees, the company manages approximately 1.5 million individual parking spaces at over 9,500 locations in 13 European countries. With its consistent "asset light" business model, APCOA is the trusted partner who maximizes value for private and public real estate owners.
Via its open digital platform APCOA FLOW, the company connects on-street and off-street car parks with clients, partners, customers and their vehicles. Based on this technology, APCOA is transforming its car parks into mobility hubs, offering innovative services that enable a more convenient mobility experience. The environment also benefits: with its digital services and intelligent Traffic Management System, the company actively contributes to the reduction of emissions in cities by decreasing the volume of traffic searching for parking. By connecting parking and mobility, APCOA is becoming an integral part of the Smart City. www.apcoa.com
About HERE Technologies
HERE, a location data and technology platform, moves people, businesses and cities forward by harnessing the power of location. By leveraging our open platform, we empower our customers to achieve better outcomes - from helping a city manage its infrastructure or a business optimize its assets to guiding drivers to their destination safely. To learn more about HERE, please visit www.here.com and http://360.here.com.
• The companies are cooperating as part of a coordinated smart city strategy
• UFODRIVE users can now rent all-electric vehicles in the APCOA Mall of Berlin car park
• APCOA and innogy announce plans to expand the provision of intelligent charging infrastructure throughout the APCOA car park network
Stuttgart/Berlin/Essen, 2 March 2020 – APCOA PARKING, innogy and UFODRIVE today opened the first UFODRIVE hub in the APCOA multi-storey car park at the “Mall of Berlin” shopping centre in the heart of Berlin. From here, local customers and visitors to Berlin now have access to a zero-emission, innovative and flexible mobility service.
Intelligent electromobility solutions, such as hassle-free, app-enabled vehicle rental, are playing an increasingly important role in the context of digitalisation and sustainability for the urban mobility infrastructure. Last year, APCOA PARKING, innogy and UFODRIVE therefore decided to pool their resources and expertise to combine clean electric mobility with the best in convenience and customer service.
Now, UFODRIVE is opening its first location in the German capital in the centrally located APCOA car park in the shopping centre “Mall of Berlin”. With a fleet of premium Tesla vehicles, UFODRIVE’s customers can now arrive at the bay with just their smartphones and the app and drive away in a fully electric rental car. The bay’s charging infrastructure is provided and operated by innogy. The car park’s entry and exit barriers open automatically as the vehicles approach thanks to the APCOA FLOW RFID chips in each vehicle. The partners have seamlessly combined individual solutions to create an easy, innovative and customer-centric car rental experience that makes a major contribution to the sustainable transformation of urban mobility.
“In terms of sustainable urban development, the car park of the future has a crucial role to play”, says Philippe op de Beeck, CEO of the APCOA PARKING Group. In addition to providing the necessary parking spaces, centrally located car parks also provide the ideal base for intelligent shared mobility solutions. “By partnering with UFODRIVE and innogy, we are taking electric mobility one step further”. As well as providing the parking spaces for the UFObay, APCOA PARKING’s digital parking service, APCOA FLOW, also represents an essential building block in creating a seamless digital experience for UFODRIVE customers.
“With UFODRIVE.COM and our fleet of fully electric Tesla vehicles, we are bringing clean, instant, 24/7 electric car rental to private and business travellers in Berlin. After successful openings in Cologne and Hamburg, it was only logical that we should also launch our app-based car rental service in Berlin. We are looking forward to providing all of our Berlin customers with a best-in-class, attractive and innovative rental offer”, explains Aidan McClean, CEO of UFODRIVE. The start-up rents out purely electric Tesla Model S and Model 3 vehicles conveniently and easily via app and has already opened UFO Landing Bays in eight countries.
“Car parks have a central role to play, not only in the urban energy transition, but also in the expansion of electromobility and public charging infrastructure. Through this partnership, we are providing a glimpse of the city of the future and proving that the digitalisation of infrastructure and the expansion of electromobility can improve people’s quality of life”, says Dr. Armin Gaul, Head of Technical Development at innogy SE. The car park’s charging infrastructure is operated by the energy company innogy, which uses green electricity and innovative charging management to ensure that vehicles are always charged and ready for customers to simply arrive and drive.
The new electric vehicle rental bay in the “Mall of Berlin” is just the beginning for the three partners. Plans are already in place to establish a network of electric vehicle rental hubs in Germany and internationally. APCOA and innogy are also aiming to equip a large number of APCOA car parks with public charging infrastructure, thereby enabling electric car owners to simultaneously park and charge their vehicles. The partners’ proposals are designed to promote the expansion of eMobility across the whole of Germany and include the widespread deployment of sensor technology and value-added digital services across APCOA’s pan-European car park network. Thanks to the visionary partnership the car park of the future will be a central element of the smart city.
Part of the offer is APCOA FLOW: The free parking app makes it easier for business customers and regular drivers to use more than 200 selected APCOA car parks. They benefit from easy and convenient ticketless access and no longer have to make sure they have the right change for the pay machine. Users can decide whether they want to pay by credit or debit card and are automatically billed for the parking services they use. Billing is entirely transparent and users can review the costs of their parking transactions in the app and by email.
About APCOA PARKING Group
APCOA PARKING Group is Europe's leading parking operator with 50 years of industry expertise. With its 5,000 employees, the company manages approximately 1.5 million individual parking spaces at over 9,500 locations in 13 European countries. These include parking spaces at 1,800 city and shopping centre locations, 400 hotels, 150 hospitals and 58 European airports. With its consistent “asset light” business model, APCOA is the trusted partner who maximises value for private and public real estate owners.
Via its open digital platform, APCOA FLOW, the company connects on-street and off-street car parks with clients, partners, customers and their vehicles. Based on this technology, APCOA is transforming its car parks into mobility hubs, offering innovative services that enable a more convenient mobility experience. The environment also benefits: with its digital services and intelligent Traffic Management System, the company actively contributes to the reduction of emissions in cities by decreasing the volume of traffic searching for parking. By connecting parking and mobility, APCOA is positioned to become an integral part of the Smart City.
UFODRIVE is a start-up company founded in Luxembourg that provides an all-digital, all-electric car rental solution. Customers can book premium all-electric vehicles via the UFODRIVE website or app and arrive, unlock and drive via their smartphones with the UFODRIVE app.
The company’s solutions are designed for both private and business travellers and UFODRIVE is already available in many major European cities, including Dublin, London, Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam, Luxembourg, Hamburg, Cologne and Berlin. The company’s UFObay rental and return hubs are primarily located at airports and central transport interchanges within each city.
Press photos and additional information are available at: www.ufodrive.com/press; www.ufodrive.com
Contact: Jens Stoewhase; e-Mail: pr[at]rabbit-publishing.net; mobile: +49 151 275 33 262
About innogy SE
innogy SE is a leading German energy company with a turnover of around 37 billion euros (2018) and around 43,000 employees. With its three divisions, Renewable Energies, Grid & Infrastructure, and Sales, innogy addresses the requirements of a modern decarbonised, decentralised and digital energy world. The company’s approximately 22 million customers are at the heart of everything innogy does. innogy strives to offer its customers innovative and sustainable products and services with which they can use energy more efficiently and improve their quality of life. The company’s most important markets are Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium, as well as a number of countries in Central Eastern and South Eastern Europe, in particular the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. With a total capacity of 4.0 gigawatts, innogy also generates electricity from renewable energies outside these regions, e. g. in Spain, Italy and the USA. As an innovation leader in future-oriented topics such as eMobility, innogy is also represented in international technology hotspots such as Silicon Valley, Tel Aviv and Berlin. innogy combines the broad know-how of its energy technicians and engineers with digital technology partners – from start-ups to large corporations.